Two that Christopher Columbus’ ships were so little that guys had cuales refuge to sleep and poor comida storage brought about wormy meals.

Estás mirando: La niña la pinta y la santa maria

On honorable 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus and his crew collection sail from the port of palos in southerly Spain on numero 3 vessels: la Santa claro (Niña), la Pinta and la santa Gallega (Santa Maria). Dos of los ships, the Niña and Pinta, to be tiny through today’s standards—only 50 to setenta feet from bow to stern—but prized for your speed y maneuverability. The papa noel Maria, Columbus’s flagship, was ns larger, heavier cargo ship.

For 35 days, Columbus and his crew of ochenta y seis Spanish sailors cruised westward browsing for ns passage to China y India. With ns men close come mutiny versus their “foreign” captain, colón was about to turn regreso when los cry went fuera at dos a.m. Top top October 12 that land had actually been sighted.

Columbus hadn’t found uno western path to India, the course, however his success in crossing los Atlantic was due in big part to the ships he decided for ns perilous voyage, particularly los diminutive Niña and Pinta, i beg your pardon were a speedy escribe of ship called uno caravel.

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When los royal decree went el fin in mil cuatrocientos noventa y dos from Queen Isabella that Spain to money Columbus’s first voyage, that read, “By this presents, we dispatch the nobleza man Christoforus Colón with tres equipped caravels gastos generales the ocean Seas toward los regions of indios for certain reasons y purposes.”

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The caravels the Christopher Columbus, ns Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria.

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Caravels Were cutting edge in the 15th Century

Though only two of Columbus’s ships became caravels, Isabella’s decree speaks to ns popularity of los vessel during los 15th-century “Age the Discovery.” Starting with Portuguese explorations of ns African coast in ns mid-1400s, caravels were prized for their sleek, lightweight hull and their uncanny capability to sail into the wind.

Luis Filipe Viera ese Castro, a nautical archeologist at Texas A&M University, claims that the earlier Portuguese caravels, well-known as los caravela latina, were rigged with lateen (triangular) sails the hung at 45-degree edge to ns deck.

“Lateen sails space <…> practically like wings,” states Castro. “You can señalar the bow of ns caravel with an angle of just 20 degrees off los wind y still get sufficient lift on los outer edge of los sail come propel forward.”

The lateen-rigged caravels were an essential in the Portuguese trips to sub-Saharan African, wherein strong seaside winds blow norte to south. Ns versatile caravel can speed del sur along the coast y easily regresar to coast against the wind.

For Columbus’s maiden journey, the used un Spanish upgrade to the caravel recognized as los caravela redonda, ns three-masted delivery where ns first two masts to be rigged con conventional cuadrado sails for open-ocean speed, y a 3rd was rigged with un lateen sail for seaside maneuverability. That rigging combination made ships like los Niña y the Pinta part of ns best sailing vessels of your time.

In enhancement to their versatile rigging options, 15th-century caravels moved ns rudder to los rear centrar of ns ship. In los 14th-century caravels ancha in the Mediterranean, ns rudder to be still on los side, claims Castro, like Viking ships. The nuevo position enabled for far greater control.